Dutch Cartography in the 16th and 17th Century

The heritage of Willem and Joan Blaeu

By Henk Rijkeboer 1

1. Introduction

Amsterdam was the centre of cartography in the 17th century. Dutch maps were the most detailed and also a feast for the eye. The highlight was the Atlas Maior of Joan Blaeu, part of the national historical canon. Joan Blaeu was able to use the work of other cartographers for his Atlas, including the work of his father Willem. The Atlas Maior was a highlight, but in some ways the culmination of a development which had its roots in the 16th century. How did this process start? What was the course of the development? What contributions did Willem Blaeu and his son Joan make to this?
This article gives a description of this development and hyperlinks to Internet resources. The books mentioned here are often completely available as e-recourse.

2. Portolan charts

In the late Middle Ages, trade became more prevalent. This also meant an increase of shipping. New navigation resources, such as the compass2 and the astrolabe made it possible to make longer voyages. Especially for captains, who wanted to visit unknown ports, there was a need to be informed about winds and depths of waters and other data to reach a port safely. From this need the portolan3 developed in the Mediterranean, which the Dutch called later “pascaerten4” (nautical charts5). The Portuguese were very active in this field in the 15th century.

3. Rediscovery of the work of Ptolemy

In the late Middle Ages, the work of Claudius Ptolemy6 (2nd century AD.) was rediscovered and re-issued. Important for the cartography is a system of longitude and latitude. This system was devised by Hipparchus of Nicaea7 in the second century BC. Ptolemy gave in his Cosmographia8 the coordinates of about 8,000 places. From the 12th century again maps were drawn, based on the instructions of Ptolemy. In 1475 the first map of Ptolemy was printed.

4. Discovery of new worlds

In 1492 Columbus discovered America and in 1498 Vasco da Gama sailed to India. The door was open to new worlds. The discoveries of the 16th century gave an explosion of new geographical knowledge. This had to be incorporated. To maintain contact with the newly discovered regions, it was important to make maps as accurate as possible.

5. The development of modern cartography

In the important trade places we see the development of modern cartography. The German Martin Behaim9 designed the first modern terrestrial globe in Lisbon.
The Dutchman Gemma Frisius10 (1508-1555) laid the foundations of triangulation11 for cartography. With this method it was possible to determine the position of villages and cities in relation to each other accurately12. This made more accurate maps possible.
Frisius also made his own maps and terrestrial- and celestial globes. This Dutch scientist was the prototype of a Renaissance man13. He was among others physician, geographer, astronomer and mathematician. The cartographer who first used the triangulation was the Dutchman van Deventer14. He mapped15 many cities in The Netherlands, by order of King Philip II16.

6. The problem of finding the longitude

Additionally Frisius searched for the solution of the determination of the longitude at sea, by using a clock. The longitude, he understood, could be found by comparing the time of the actual position with the time at home. It would take however more than two centuries until this solution was generally accepted.
Moreover, clocks were too unstable at sea and showed therefore deviations too large to be reliable for measuring the longitude. In the second half of the 17th century another Dutchman, Christiaan Huygens17, also carried out a research. He also sought the solution to the longitude problem in timekeeping. He invented the clock pendulum, but it was still influenced by sea undulation. A minute difference already could mean for a ship that it sailed in the fog onto the rocks? Finally in 1765 the English watchmaker John Harrison18 was able to create a chronometer that was sea-resistant. The problem of the longitude was also picked up by the Amsterdam clergyman and cartographer Plancius (1552-1622) 19. Plancius considered another system.
Both towards the north and towards the south the compass always shows a larger declination. This is caused by the magnetic field of the earth. We can make a small experiment at home and imitate this declination. One needs for this a compass and a magnetic bar. If you move the compass on one side, from the middle, along the magnetic bar you will notice that the compass shows an increasing declination towards the far end. In other words; the degrees of the declination gives away the longitude.
If someone understands how to find latitude, longitude can also be found by using a table. Therefore, this table was based on the difference between the compass north and the real north. This last one can be found by the height of the
sun on the middle of the day, straight in the south, and in the night by using the Pole Star. The Dutchman Simon Stevin20 gave the theory of Plancius a mathematical foundation in his book, “de havenvinding”, 21 (1599).
However, sailors thought this theory was unreliable22. At the end of the 16th century both the Dutch parliament and the States of Holland and West Friesland held competitions about the correct solution of the longitude problem23.

7. Finding the latitude

Finding the longitude was a problem, finding the latitude however was relatively simple. The method for that purpose comes from the antiquity and was already applied by the earlier-mentioned Hipparchus of Nicaea. The astrolabe was used for this from the 4th century AD. This instrument was further improved by the Arabs24. At the beginning of the 14th century Levi Ben Gerson (Gersonides25) should have invented an alternative for the astrolabe, the cross-staff26. Frisius and others have described the method and the use of the cross-staff (or Jacob's staff). At the beginning of the 17th century Willem Blaeu also described this method clearly in his mariner's guide “Licht der Zee-vaert”. This work is entirely on the Internet27.
In the night one could take the height of the Pole Star to measure the latitude. The lower the Pole Star, the more South one was. At the Equator the Pole Star was directly on the horizon.
By day it was necessary to measure exactly at twelve noon28 the height of the sun above the horizon with an astrolabe or cross-staff. The Dutch called it "to shoot the sun". The degrees of height found had then to be corrected by using a table.
Let’s assume that the sailor was north of the equator. Between September 23 and March 20 the sun is south of the Equator. In that case the table showed some extra degrees, depending on the date. If the sun was north of the Equator the table showed how many degrees fewer the sailor had to take for every day. Thus the table indicated exactly how many degrees one had to deduct or to add for each day. A new table was published annually. That was necessary because of the difference between the calendar year and the tropical year29. By this way the sailor knew exactly the latitude.

8. The circumference of the earth

Another Dutch mathematician, Willebrord Snellius (the Dutch Eratosthenes30), went further and calculated the circumference of the earth. First he determined the latitude of the Dutch cities Alkmaar and Bergen op Zoom. The difference in latitude between these cities determined Snellius to be 1° 12'. Then he measured, by means of triangulation, the distance between both cities31. By this way he determined the size of latitude. He multiplied this size by360. Thus he calculated the circumference of the earth at 38,660,364 km (converted from Rhineland roods by which Snellius worked).

9. The Mercator projection

A cartographic problem was how to project the spherical earth on a flat map. The Fleming Gerard Kremer (Mercator32), a student of Frisius, came up with the solution: the Mercator projection33. Mercator was the first person to use the name “Atlas” for his volume of maps.

10. First real printed atlas

This projection is used in the first real printed atlas in book form, namely of Ortelius34 in Antwerp. Until the middle of the 16th century separated maps were printed, some of which were compiled into an atlas. Ortelius used these maps but redesigned them in the same format. Also, he added geographic descriptions to it. His Theatrum Orbis Terrarium35, 36 (Theatre of the globe, 1570) was, in form and content, the example for atlases later released in Amsterdam.
The Cologne canon Georg Braun and the engraver Hogenberg, originating from Mechelen, added to the Atlas of Ortelius a number of city books, under the name of Orbis Terrarum Civitates37. It contained plans of all major cities of the world. This city book became also an example for later city books, including that of Joan Blaeu.

11. The Dutch revolt

Antwerp became the main staple market and trading centre of Western Europe in the 16th century. However, a revolt broke out in The Netherlands against the Spanish rule of King Philip II, in 1568. This revolt led to an independent republic in the northern part of the Netherlands, known as "Republic of Seven Provinces". Antwerp was also in the northern camp. The rest of the Southern Netherlands remained in the hands of the Spaniards.

12. Amsterdam became a centre of trade and cartography

Amsterdam had an important port in previous centuries. This was due to its central location in Western Europe. Another cause was that the Dutch peaty soil was not suitable for growing grain. For this reason the Dutch farmers specialized in commercial crops, like flax, and dairy products. Dairy and herring were exported and grain was imported from the Baltic Sea area. In 1585 Antwerp was reconquered by Spanish troops. Ships from the north then blocked the port of Antwerp. Many traders and scientists fled from Antwerp to the North, especially to Amsterdam. After the fall of Antwerp the trade of Amsterdam was intensified and diversified. Amsterdam became the new cartographic centre. All of Europe was provided with maps from Amsterdam.
The maps were precisely, but also beautiful. These precise maps were necessary in a world of increasing contacts.

13. Dutch expansion overseas

Because of the war with Spain and Portugal the spice trade was impossible for the Dutch. Portugal was annexed by Philip II in1580. Now Portugal had to keep, like Spain, the trade embargo of Philip II in1585. Therefore, the Dutch searched for a seaway to India and they took over many Portuguese trading posts in Asia.
The cartographer Plancius was the initiator of the first voyages to the East Indies. His maps were based on the Itinerario38, a travelogue of Jan Huygen van Linschoten39. This Dutchman had travelled in the service of the Portuguese to the Indies and copied many secret Portuguese nautical charts and coastal side-views.
Also for the trade to America sailors had a strong need for good and detailed maps. In the beginning Spanish and Portuguese sailor's guides provided this need.

14. Sailor's guides

The Spaniard Pedro Medina made previously a sailor's guide, the Arte de Navegar, 154540. The Portuguese Pedro Nunes41 published a comprehensive treatise on navigation, De arte atque ratione navigandi, 157342. He is also the inventor of the rhumb line.
The idea of the sailor's guide was perfected by Lucas Jansz Waghenaer43. This steersman and cartographer of the Dutch city Enkhuizen published his “Spieghel der Zeevaerdt” 44 in 1584. It was the first European sea-atlas. A combination with navigation instructions made it more special. A captain who went sailing a longer route had maps with (brief) sailing directions at his disposal. Besides these maps there were also coastal profiles45, so that the skipper could recognize the place he was. Depths and currents of the North Sea were described as well. It was also in other respects a guide for the steersman. It explained how to make and use a cross-staff46 and a nautical chart. Other skills such as determining the timing of the new moon were also discussed.
The work was quite expensive, because it was printed in large folio. All European coasts were described, except the Mediterranean. A new version, "Thresoor der Zeevaert"47 had the advantage of being smaller and cheaper. Therefore, it shall be used on more ships. Besides, the shores of the Mediterranean were also included. This was due to the sailor and cartographer Willem Barentsz, who had mapped this sea48.
There were translations of this reference book in English49, Latin, French and German50. The work greatly influenced the English navigation knowledge. As a result, for centuries, the English used the expression “Waggoners” 51, 52.

15. Sources of information for the cartographer

Because of the many trade contacts, there was also much geographical information available for the nautical charts. A cartographer could use the notes of mates or skippers. Maps were made in other countries too. These maps were taken to Amsterdam and there used by cartographers. Purchase of copper plates also occurred. In many cases maps were copied of fellow editors or from older issues (such as those of Ortelius). Copyright did not exist. However, one could get a privilege from the Dutch States General, but this privilege expired after, on average, 10 years53.

16. Publishing house Hondius-Janssonius

After the death of Mercator, his copper plates were sold to Jodocus Hondius54 (1563-1612). He was a refugee from the southern part of the Low Countries who had settled in Amsterdam. Hondius republished the work of Mercator and added new maps to it. Besides a large atlas, Hondius released a pocket edition: the Atlas Minor55. French and German translations followed. In 1612 Hondius sons56 and his son-in-law, Johannes Janssonius (1588-1664) 57, inherited the company.

17. Willem Blaeu

One of these sons, however, sold copper plates to Willem Blaeu. Because of this, Willem Blaeu became a formidable competitor of the Hondius-Janssonius publishing house after 1630.
Willem Blaeu was born in Alkmaar (or Uitgeest, a place nearby Alkmaar) in 1571. His father was a herring merchant. William however was not interested in the herring trade, but in science.
Alkmaar at the end of 16th century has been an inspiring environment. The inhabitants were apparently self-confidence, gained by their victory over the Spaniards. It was the city of land surveyor, mathematician, astronomer, cartographer and fortress builder Adriaen Anthonisz58. He made the design for the stronghold that stopped the Spaniards in their siege of Alkmaar. Anthonisz was then asked to design many other strongholds, including that of Naarden and Bourtange. He was the father of mathematician and astronomer Adriaan Adriaansz. Metius59 and Jacob Metius60. Especially Adriaan61 has acquired international fame. It was also the city of Cornelis Drebbel62, among other things cartographer and alchemist. He invented the mercury thermometer and the submarine63.
To what extent these scientists had contact with Willem Blaeu is unknown64. However, it is certain that Adriaen Anthonisz helped Willem Blaeu with its first celestial globe.
He followed his training by Tycho Brahe65. Brahe made on the Danish island Hven precise observational data. He made his observations with the naked eye, but with the help of instruments like the quadrant66 (see also his Astronomiae Instauratae Mechanics from 160267). The telescope is invented a few years later by the Dutchman Lipperhey68.
Tycho Brahe had his own cosmic system69, a sort of compromise between the Ptolemaic and Copernican. The new telescope was first used by Galileo Galilei to watch the sky. By these new observations, Galileo claimed that the heliocentric theory of Copernicus70 was correct.
Willem Blaeu, although a supporter of the Copernican system, was cautious. In his books he mentioned the Copernican model as one of the existing theories, besides the Ptolemaic and Tychonic71. It will not only save him for confrontations with religious people, but this attitude was also beneficial for his sales.
Thanks to this exact knowledge acquired from Brahe, Blaeu was able to make tables for sun declination which the older Portuguese exceeded72, 73. Willem also learned from Brahe to make globes and instruments like the quadrant.
Willem moved to Amsterdam in 1599. He produced his first terrestrial and celestial globes, pascaerten (nautical charts), sailor guides and navigation instruments. His first terrestrial globe dates from 159974. Later, he even wrote a manual for making globes75 and sundials76.
He published his seaman's guide Licht der Zee-vaert77 (Light of Navigation). A translation was published in English78. With the strong increase of shipping, there was a great need for this kind of information. For this reason several editions followed79. Besides the work of Waghenaer, this also had a large influence on the navigational skills of sailors from all over Europe80.
Willem Blaeu had his own book and map shop In de Vergulde Sonnewijser on the Damrak81 in Amsterdam from 1605. On Damrak, at that time a canal in the centre of Amsterdam, he had direct contact with sailors. Their reports must have been important to him for his map making.
His publishing house got a boost because he could buy a large part of the heritage of Cornelis Claesz82. Cornelis Claesz. was the pioneer of cartography in Amsterdam from 1578, where he had issued the work of Waghenaer, Plancius and others.
His competitor Janssonius opened a store next to William’s on the Damrak83 around 1615. Much of Willem Blaeu's work was copied by Janssonius. Janssonius probably even offered them cheaper84. However, there are some maps of Janssonius which appeared earlier than the same of Blaeu. That means that Blaeu was also guilty of copying.
The competition of Janssonius also produced a change of name of Willem. Until then his name had been Willem Jansz., in Latin: Guilelmus Janssonius. To avoid confusion with his neighbour, he took the nickname of his grandfather85 : Willem Jansz. Blaeu (sometimes also written as "Blaeuw”). In Latin: Guilelmus Janssonius Caesius86
Willem Blaeu was not only active in the field of cartography and navigation. As a printer, he published works including that of famous Dutch writers like P.C. Hooft and Joost van den Vondel. His printing had an international high reputation.
Blaeu was prepared to publish everyone’s work. Although he had Remonstrant sympathies, he printed books for Catholics, Jews and various Protestant groups. Counter-remonstrants, Remonstrants, Baptists, Socinians or dissenters, as for printing it made no difference for Willem. However, because of caution he published under another name and Cologne was given as place of issue. Because of his large publisher's list he opened an extra printery on the Bloemgracht in 1635. His tolerance provided him at least a large income.
The new Dutch East India Company (VOC) appointed Willem Blaeu as their map maker. The maps he made for the VOC, however, were secret. Blaeu also gave lessons to the mates of the VOC.
Willem Blaeu is most famous for his atlases. These were popular throughout Europe. Willem Blaeu published the first two parts of the Theatrum orbis terrarum sive atlas novus 87 (The theatre of the world or a New Atlas) in 1635. As mentioned above, William had used copper plates for this atlas that he bought of Henricus Hondius. Why Henricus sold these plates to the competitor, to the dismay of his brother Jodocus Hondius and brother-in-law Janssonius, is unclear.
Willem died in 1638. He was buried in the Nieuwe Kerk (New Church of Amsterdam). The company was continued by his sons, Joan (1596-1673) and Cornelis (c. 1610-1644).

18. Joan Blaeu

Joan was born in 1596 in Alkmaar. He studied in Leiden and took his doctoral degree in law at 1620. Then he made his Grand Tour of Italy. Joan Blaeu succeeded his father, not only in business but also as head cartographer of the Dutch East India Company. He continued the tolerant press tradition of his father. The successful Joan Blaeu belonged finally to the “regenten” (the rulers of Dutch cities) after 1651. Joan held all kinds of administrative functions and was a member of the town council.
Joan and his brother Cornelius published the following four volumes of the Atlas Novus (New Atlas) 88. Joan Blaeu also added a book of cities, Toonneel der Steden89 (Theatre of cities), in 1648. It contained maps of all cities of the North and South Low Countries.
Competition with the publishing house of Hondius-Janssonius was fierce. Both issued more new atlases and books of cities90. Beside Latin there were also Dutch, English, French and German editions of these atlases. Janssonius was assisted by his son-in-law, Johannes Janssonius van Waesberge. Johannes distinguished of Joan Blaeu by publishing a sea-91, star-92 and history atlas93.
When competitor Johannes Janssonius came with an Atlas Maior of ten volumes Joan wanted to exceed him. In 1662 he also came with an Atlas Maior94 (Great Atlas), but with 11 folios containing a total of 600 maps and 3000 pages of text. Initially it was in Latin95, but later a Dutch, French and an (incomplete) Spanish edition followed. This atlas was the most expensive book of the 17th century, but also the best! With coloured maps it costed ƒ450, -. This was five years' salary for an unskilled worker96.
A disaster took place in 1672. Joan Blaeu's printery (the "Typographia Blaviana”) at Gravenstraat burned down. Not only was a large part of the Spanish editions of the Atlas Maior lost, but also many copper plates. Some of the rescued copper plates were bought by other publishers, like Frederick de Wit.
The fire meant the end of the golden age of the Blaeu publishing house. Joan Blaeu died in 1673. His sons continued the publishing house until 1712.

19. Other publishers

The families Blaeu and Hondius-Janssonius were not the only map makers. Beside them there were other publishers who often produced splendid work. Like the Visscher family. Claes Jansz. Visscher97 (1587-1662) produced especially maps with war and news reports98. His son Nicholas I99 (1618-1679) and grandson Nicolaes Visscher II (1649-1702) published maps and atlases too. But unlike the Blaeu and Janssonius atlases, they had no covering texts.
In the field of charts100 the family van Keulen acquired great reputation. Johannes van Keulen101 published in 1681 the Nieuwe Lichtende Zee-Fakkel102. Johannes worked together with the cartographer Vooght103 and the engraver Jan Luyken104, 105. His shop, “De Gekroonde Lootsman” 106 at the Nieuwebrugsteeg in Amsterdam, remained until 1880.
Furthermore atlases were published, among others, by Carel Allard107, Petrus Bertius108, , Justus Danckerts109,Hendrik Doncker110 , Pieter Goos111, Joannes van Loon112, Pieter Motier113. Petrus Schenk114, Gerard Valk115 and Frederick de Wit116.

20. The Vingboons family

A different story concerning the cartographers of the 17th century is that of Johannes Vingboons. He was a member of a famous family of architects, painters, illustrators, engravers and cartographers. His brother Philip Vingboons is still a well-known leading architect. Father David Vingboons designed several cartouches and decorations for maps of Willem Blaeu.
Johannes was a water colourist. His works were intended for the international company of princes and wealthy collectors and were often hung on the wall in their palaces. He also produced atlases for Cosimo II de Medici and f.e. two globes for Christina of Sweden.
From 1640 Johannes worked closely with Joan Blaeu. Johannes had his workshop at the St. Anthoniesbreestraat117 in Amsterdam.
Vingboons got his information not only from steersman but also from special artists who accompany expeditions of the Dutch East India and the West Indian Company, like Nieudorp118 and Nicolaas de Graaff119. Although Vingboons made images of cityscapes, city maps, ports, castles and coastal maps of around the world, he didn’t go out of Amsterdam. The maps of Vingboons are exquisite 120 and 121.

21. Customers of maps

The most important customers for sea maps were, of course, the steersman and captains or their employers (like the Dutch East Indian and the West Indian Company). In addition, merchants also wanted to know where their products came from and went to. Atlases were something for wealthy citizens, like van der Hem en van Loon. Moreover, especially the Blaeu atlases provided the owner status.

22. Collected Atlases (Factice Atlas)

The customers of these atlases were mostly wealthy citizens. They bought not only out of curiosity, but mainly out of ostentation. Therefore they wanted editions with many beautiful maps.
Particularly in the second half of the 17th century unbound editions of the Atlas Maior were sold. It was possible to add many other maps to these volumes.
The most famous is the Atlas Blaeu- van der Hem122. The Amsterdam lawyer van der Hem gathered as many as 46 volumes with 3000 graphics maps and other images. It is now in the Austrian National Library in Vienna. It is listed as a UNESCO world heritage.
The Atlas van Loon123 is also an example. The rich citizen of Amsterdam Frederik Willem van Loon composed it from the Atlas Maior and the city atlases of the Netherlands and Italy. It was a combination of atlases by Joan Blaeu, but van Loon added also the “Zee-atlas ofte water-wereld” (Sea-Atlas of the Water-World) by Pieter Goos and the “Zeeatlas” (Sea-Atlas) of Janssonius.
Another example is the “Atlas van Hagen124”. Finally, the example of the "Atlas Beudeker" is interesting125. This was namely an atlas composed by a sugar bread baker ", Christopher Beudeker126. His sugar loaves must have tasted very well that he could afford this luxury.

23. Production of maps

Most maps were engraved on copper plates. This was precise work and it had to be drawn in reverse on the copper plate. It was possible to make many prints of
these engravings. The more expensive maps / atlases were also coloured. This was done mostly by women and children at home. Sometimes this was done by a master colourist.

24. Decorations on maps

It is the time of the baroque, which is reflected in the rich decorations. In the margins of the maps were allegorical performances made, putti, weapons of cities and monarchs etc. Also cartouches with information about used distance measure (the scale bar). At the top of such a cartouche is usually illustrated with a compass127. The most commonly used scale bar is the German miles (7.4 km), 15 German miles are equivalent to the distance between two latitudes. It is a very logical distance measurement. In addition, compass roses with lines were also important. These lines (rhumb lines or loxodromes128) made it possible for the skipper to work with triangle and compass and draw a straight line to the next port and calculate its distance. These charts were called “pascaerten”, after the Dutch words for compass (passer) and map (caert).
Of course, the degrees of latitude and longitude were also given on these maps. For the longitude, Blaeu used the “Pico del Teide”129 as the prime meridian130.
The maps from Amsterdam were both precise and beautiful. These precise maps were necessary in a world of increasing contacts. However, the great beauty made them desirable too.

25. Dutch leading role taken over by the French.

The old maps of the previous period were often reprinted after 1670. New geographical knowledge is not incorporated therein131. The customers wanted impressive maps and were not interested in maps in which the latest geographical knowledge was processed.
By this it was possible that the leading role of the Dutch in cartography was taken over by the French132. The "Académie des Sciences", founded in 1666, was directed at improving maps. Paris became the new cartographic centre. Dutch charts, however, remained much in demand during the 18th century.
During the seventeenth century Dutch cartography dominated Europe. The highlight was the Atlas Maior of Joan Blaeu. It is the crown on the work of Dutch cartographers from the 16th and 17th centuries, truly a contribution to the European heritage.

 


Bibliography

Besides the books mentioned in this article, which you can study by using the hyperlinks, you can read the following (Dutch) books:

  • P.J.H. Baudet, Leven en werken van Willem Jansz. Blaeu (Utrecht 1871). Complete work here: http://www.archive.org/details/levenenwerkenvo00pjgoog
  • C. Bosters (ed.), Kunst in kaart : decoratieve aspecten van de cartografie (Utrecht 1989)
  • P. v d Brink en J. Werner, Gesneden en gedrukt in de Kalverstraat : de kaarten- en atlassendrukkerij in Amsterdam tot in de 19e eeuw (Utrecht 1989)
  • M. Donkersloot-de Vrij, Drie generaties Blaeu : Amsterdamse cartografie en boekdrukkunst in de zeventiende eeuw (Zutphen 1992)
  • M. van Egmond, Covens & Mortier : a Map-publishing House in Amsterdam 1685-1866 (Houten 2009)
  • S.J Fockema Andrea en C. Koeman, Kaarten en kaarttekenaars (Bussum 1972)
  • J. Goss, De Geschiedenis van de cartografie (Lisse 1994)
  • H.A.M. van der Heijden, Eenheid op papier : de Nederlanden in kaart van keizer Karel tot Willem I (Leuven 1994)
  • E.O. van Keulen (ed.), In de Gekroonde Lootsman: het kaarten-, boekuitgevers en instrumentenmakershuis Van Keulen te Amsterdam 1680 – 1885 (Utrecht 1989)
  • P.C.J. van der Krogt, Advertenties voor kaarten, atlassen, globes e.d. in Amsterdamse kranten 1621-1811(Utrecht 1985)
  • P.C.J. van der Krogt, Globi Neerlandici : The production of globes in the Low Countries (Utrecht 1993)
  • P.C.J. van der Krogt, Joan Blaeu, Atlas Maior of 1665 (Cologne 2005) P.C.J. van der Krogt, Joan Blaeu, Atlas Maior of 1665: Belgica Regia & Belgica Foederata: De Lage Landen (Cologne 2006) C. Koeman, Geschiedenis van de kartografie van Nederland : zes eeuwen land- en zeekaarten en stadsplattegronden (Alphen aan den Rijn 1985)
  • C. Koeman, Joan Blaeu and his Grand atlas (Amsterdam 1970)
  • W.F.J. Mörzer Bruyns, Konst der Stuurlieden. Stuurmanskunst en maritieme cartografie in acht portretten, 1540-2000 (Zutphen 2001)
  • W.F.J. Mörzer Bruyns, Schip recht door zee. De octant in de Republiek in de achttiende eeuw (Amsterdam 2003). Complete on the Internet: http://www.knaw.nl/Content/Internet_KNAW/publicaties/pdf/20031017.pdf
  • Ruud Paesie, Zeeuwse kaarten voor de VOC : het kaartenmakersbedrijf van de Kamer Zeeland in de 17de en 18de eeuw (Zutphen 2010)
  • R. Putman, Nederlandse Zeekaarten uit de Gouden Eeuw (Abcoude 2005)
  • R. Putman, Oude scheepskaarten en hun makers (Amsterdam 1983)
  • J. Werner, Inde Witte Pascaert :Kaarten en atlassen van Frederick de Wit, uitgever te Amsterdam (ca. 1630-1706) (Amsterdam 1994)
  • E. Bos-Rietdijk e.o., Lucas Jansz. Waghenaer van Enckhuysen : de maritieme cartografie in de Nederlanden in de zestiende en het begin van de zeventiende eeuw (Enkhuizen 1984)

 


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