NOTES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF KNOWLEDGE ABOUT ROMAN LUGO
Luz Mª Martínez Arias
It is the aim of this present work to set out a chronological exposition of the development of historical and archaeological knowledge about the city of Lugo’s Roman past. It cannot be expected to collate references to all of the excavations already carried out here, particularly from 1985-86, years which mark a milestone in the archaeology of Lugo, with the result that those years represent a turning point, as we will soon see. In line with the above comments only large excavations will be mentioned and also those which, although not so “large”, have furnished significant discoveries or important dates relating to the understanding of the ancient history of the city. This article will also include a review, not only of the main archaeological works, but also of the most notable publications on the Roman past of Lucus, without forgetting the conferences that have already been held on the subject and the various exhibitions of archaeological material taken from the subsoil of Lugo. At the end of the article we will make use of the various epigraphical repertoires of Roman Lugo, whose quantification will serve as an investigation, with numbers, into how knowledge about the population’s Roman past has developed over time.
The starting point for this review of the archaeological history of Roman Lugo is the year 1939. In that year, the Year of Victory as it had to be called then, the City Council of Lugo publishes the work of Don Manuel Vázquez Seijas, one of the curators of the city’s Provincial Museum, Lugo bajo el imperio romano (Lugo Under the Roman Empire). The publication records the talk given by the author a year before in the events hall of the Provincial Council at the request of the “distinguished Director and Professors of the National Institute for Secondary Education” to commemorate the second millennium of the emperor Augustus. This is by no means the oldest publication about the Roman history of the city of Lugo, but it is useful as an overall summary of what was known about it in the first half of the last century, and therefore it has been chosen as the starting point for our journey.
The work of Vázquez Seijas is a good example of how little was known at that time about Lugo's Roman past, so that, allowing for a little exaggeration, one can say that apart from the huge walls which surround the population and the construction of Santalla de Bóveda, which was already known about in 1926 and which is not of interest to us here as it is extra-urban, the Roman archaeology of Lugo was terra incognita.
In summary, the little that was known is set out below. Reference is made to the various channels in the subsoil of the city that were known about at the time. The Miño baths are mentioned, but no reference is made to a possible date for them. There is reference to a supposed temple to Celeste, the Venus of Carthage, in the Praza de San Domingos, where various individual archaeological remains had already been discovered. The Roman forum is situated in the Praza do Campo. According to the theory put forward in 1843 by Francisco Javier Armesto and Antonio Luis de Arnau1 the remains of the Batitales mosaics house, which was the only known example at the time Vázquez Seijas was writing, suggest a possible temple to Diana. The marble head of a woman, found in the zone of the Porta de Bispo Aguirre, is attributed to Venus Augusta, adding that at the location where it was found there could have been a Collegium Divi Augusti. With regard to necropolises, reference is made to the tombs exhumed in the area of San Roque in 1864-65 and 1917, in addition to the two tombs discovered in Recatelo in 1938 and others found subsequent to that date.
The walls from the later imperial period (3rd and 4th centuries) are attributed to Vespasian (69-79 AD). Allusion is then made to the various inscriptions from the walls and from other population sites. The bridge is considered to be a Trajan work. Reference is made to the ovens and workshops discovered in 1934 in Montevideo Street and the various numismatic finds beneath Lugo, although - it is said - there is no clear evidence that there was a mint in the town, whilst it is recognised that the coins known about today such as the caetra coins could have been produced in a mint in Lugo. The work we are reviewing ends with a mention of the relief of Heracles from the Porta Nueva part of the walls. We do not consider here the other Roman ruins to which Vázquez Seijas refers in his work, because they are extra-urban in nature.
The second chapter of our history involves the period of time between 1939 and 1985-86, a period which presents us with some new developments with regard to the archaeology of Roman Lugo.
The first new development happened on 5 November 1960 during works on the paving of the Praza de Santa María, that is to say, close to the Cathedral. On that particular day a swimming pool was identified in the subsoil, with a rectangular floor with two apses in the chevets and decorated with black and white mosaics dating from the 6th century AD. Covered over again after its discovery, since the end of 2011 the restored pool can be seen beneath the floor of the square, through an archaeological window.
Four years later, in 1964, the collapse of a section of an inner wall in the area near the Círculo das Artes (Arts Circle) reveals the first steps used for accessing the bailey of the fortification. It is the second new development in the period we are dealing with and an important development for the walls around Lugo, since up until then original means of accessing the walls were completely unknown. Nowadays many items have been excavated and restored.
1972 is a crucial year for the Roman walls of Lugo. At that time Operación Muralla Limpa (Clean Wall Operation) was implemented by the Lugo resident don Ramón Falcón, at that time DeputyGeneral Director for Fine Arts, with don Florentino Pérez Embid as Director General. The walls of Lugo, which had already been declared a National Monument in 1921, from 1972 were freed from the houses which had been attached to their outer walls2. The works were directed by the architect Antonio González Trigo. Although there were a few, there were not many voices disagreeing with this cleansing project. Notable amongst these was the architect R. López de Lucio who disagreed in an article published in the journal “Ciudad y Territorio” (“City and Territory”) in 1978. The walls project brought the City Council the Europa Nostra award in 1981. With regard to knowledge about the walls of Lugo there are three milestones, the first two predating the cleansing operation and the third being contemporary with it. These are the works by Ian Richmond in 19313, Vázquez Seijas in 19554 and Felipe Arias Vilas in 19725.
In 1973 there appears a comprehensive study on the Roman mosaics of the ancient provincial court of Lucus which naturally includes the Batitales mosaics and some other ruins found in Lugo6.
And so we come to the last of the events relating to the Roman city in the period we are considering. We are referring to the celebration of the Bimillennium of the city in 1975-76, a celebration which was behind the convening of the first scientific congress about Roman Lugo in which the “leading players” on the subject at that time participated. The proceedings of the congress were published in 19777. On this same date, and for the same reasons, Lugo also welcomed the sitting of the 15th National Congress of Archaeology.
As was stated at the beginning, the years 1985-86 constitute a pivotal period in the Roman archaeology of Lugo, and represent a turning-point in its development. It all began with the construction of three underground car parks in as many historical quarters of the city: the town squares of O Ferrol, San Domingos and A Constitución. Very shortly afterwards, the question of constructing of a fourth car park, which is now located in the gardens of the Provincial Council, confronted this institution and the City Council and raised the same controversy raised by the construction of the first three car parks. As will be seen, cars are therefore behind the start of a new set of archaeological standards in the city of Lugo.
The controversy raised by the fact that the first three car parks might destroy possible Roman remains filled the pages of the local and regional press in December 1985 and January 1986. The local College of Architects and Adelpha (Association for the Defence of Ecology and Historical Heritage) were at the forefront of the fight against the car parks. But events had only just begun to unfold. In the first months of 1986 the archaeological surveys in the Praza da Constitución directed by Julio Carballo Arceo reveal a late Roman burial necropolis consisting of some one hundred tombs. In March 1986 the machinery destroys the necropolis and the car park construction continues. The controversy was now out in the open. Some national newspapers called this destruction “vandalism”. Universities and various scientific institutions cried blue murder. Four members of the Technical Commission for Archaeology in Galicia resigned because of the seriousness of the events. The Galician authorities announced a freeze on the car park construction in April of the same year where there had not been any prior archaeological excavations. It was at that time that an Italian architect showed that one of the Roman roads unearthed exited from the walled city through one of the gates opened in the 19th century to provide access to what was then the municipal cemetery. In May 1986, contracted by the company Dragados y Construcciones which was charged with the car park construction work, Antonio Rodríguez Colmenero, then Professor of Ancient History at the University of Oviedo, assumed responsibility for prior archaeological excavations and would direct the excavations at the squares of O Ferrol and San Domingos. The car park at Constitución square was opened in October 1986. In June of the following year the other two were opened.
The excavations in the two squares mentioned previously made it clear for the first time that Lugo was a giant archaeological site and that the huge walls had not been erected in vain. A necropolis of 66 cremation cists was unearthed under O Ferrol square in July 1986. It had been cut off by the wall when the latter was built at the end of the third century, that is, some 300 years after the area started to be used as a cemetery. In August of the same year two magnificent mosaics emerged from the earth beneath house number 10 in Armanyá street, one of which was embellished with a scene from the Cretan myth of Daedalus, Pasiphae and the Minotaur and this takes place in a lost city of Galician Finisterre, a region of “little or no romanization” according to certain writers of the time. The Armanyá mosaics, which were raised by a team from Mérida, were moved to the Provincial Museum in 1996, and can be seen there today. A small ara dedicated to Jupiter informs us that there lived in the house, in the time of Caracalla (third century AD) a certain Gallio Senior, that is, Gallio the Elder.
The amount of useful data about the ancient history of the city that came out of the excavations at the O Ferrol and San Domingos squares was truly enormous. The same can be said about the objects excavated there. Neither of these two areas can be fully summarised here. In 1989 the “reconstruction” of some archaeological remains, which had initially been placed there, was removed from the square of San Domingos.
There were three immediate consequences arising of the controversies about the car park excavations. One was the first exhibition of archaeological objects from the city, hosted at the former prison (Cárcel del Partido) in 1986-87. The second was the establishment by the Galician authorities of regulations, in 1986, for archaeological excavations prior to the construction of any building in the historic centre of Lugo. Two years later the Office of Archaeology, which was to report to the City Council, was set up. All of this was culminating in the archaeology of Lugo finally being treated as a regulated activity. And this is the fourth part of this story.
In July 1987 there was a discovery which changed the way in which, up until then, the walled centre had been regarded. In a plot of land at the Rolda da Muralla, more or less bordering the Porta da Estación, there appeared the first trace of the original ditch around the walls of Lucus, a ditch in the shape of a U, between 20 and 25 metres wide and 5 metres deep, located about 5 metres from the most protruding parts of the wall turrets or towers. Subsequent to the date we are writing about other remnants of this ditch have been discovered, in different sectors.
Two years later, in 1989, various parts of the Roman city’s large necropolis were excavated (now located in the district known as San Roque, which is an extension of the cemetery sector of A Constitución square which was ravaged by machinery, as we have seen earlier). The excavations were centred on the former Mesón de Aguiar and in the vicinity of the chapel which gives the district its name. There were 2nd century cremations and late imperial burials from the 3rd century. A large swimming pool was located beside these tombs, embellished with carved reliefs at the points of entry to, and exit from, the water. The ram and the sphinx in these reliefs have been associated with some of the Eastern religions which were prominent during the late Roman period before the definitive triumph of Christianity, a religion with the same Eastern roots. In the same year, 1989, another necropolis was excavated in the Campo de Forca.
At the end of the 1980s we already had a detailed knowledge of the aqueduct which carried water to the Roman city, the design of which closely corresponds with the one erected by Bishop Izquierdo in the 18th century and which was in use until the end of the following century. The intake was found in the Castiñeiro area. Its first section has a wall 1m20 high with the especus inside. Then, a stream channel directs it on to arches resting on square pilasters which are more than one metre across. It came into the walled city through a hole close to what is now the Porta de San Fernando. Various remains of the aqueduct (whose date is uncertain) are known about today, including those uncovered (1997) in the Praza da Milagrosa and in San Marcos street (2011)8.
In 1991 in the district of Recatelo, the remains of “castrexo” type, circular shaped dwellings were uncovered, dating from the foundation of the city, and in Rúa Nova there appeared, with other remains, walls decorated with stucco. That same year the journal Larouco started to be published, in whose pages one can usually find news about any developments in the archaeological work at Lugo9.
In the following year an original turret of the original Roman wall is found in the Campo Castelo area, a section of the wall altered when in the 19th century the Carlist Wars gave rise to the so-called Reduto Cristina set as a bastion adapted to the artillery requirements of the time. The conservation and restoration work on the bastion was completed in 2002.
Construction work on the Museum of San Roque started in 1994. After several delays the museum finally opened its doors in 2007. Remains of the necropolis and the large swimming pool referred to previously can be viewed inside.
1996 saw several cultural events of interest in relation to the Roman past of Lugo. This year sees the holding of the second exhibition of archaeological artefacts from the city, hosted in the former municipal abattoir, now converted to an exhibition hall called Porta Miñá. The exhibition is part of the second international conference on archaeology held in the city. The conference takes place between the 15th and 18th of May, under the heading “The origins of the city in the Hispanic northwest”10. Also in 1996 there appears the first of ten anticipated volumes of a monumental work on the ancient history and archaeology of Lugo11.
At the end of the 90's, advances in archaeological knowledge about the urban subsoil, gained as a result of the numerous excavations already carried out in it and in spite of the limitations and constraints inherent in archaeology in current population centres, mean that in general terms the layout of the forum of the old Roman city is now known. We are talking about a rectangular town square approximately 160 metres by 105, with a surface area of some 20,000 square metres, located in what are now the streets of Progreso, San Pedro, Raíña and San Domingos square. The forum was crossed by the decumanus maximus in an east to west direction, exiting from the former walled city via the Porta Miñá. The square was bordered on the west side by what appears to be the cardo máximus which overlaps to some extent with the current rúa da Raíña. Previous excavations have also helped us to understand the broad outlines of the original, unwalled city, the early imperial city, which extended over 35 hectares, and also how this layout was altered when in the 3rd or 4th centuries the walls of the later imperial city were built, leaving inhabited areas from the original open city outside and, on the other hand, enclosing burial (and therefore uninhabited) areas inside the formerly unwalled city.
From 1998 to 2000, between the streets of Armanyá, Catedral and Bispo Basulto, a large thermal spa complex was uncovered, possibly for public use, appearing to take up an entire urban insula west of the forum. It appears to date from the 1st century and to have been still in use in the 3rd-5th centuries. Indirectly it could help us to date the aqueduct to early times, as an aqueduct would have been needed to provide water for the thermal baths complex.
Between 1998 and 2002, in the course of a series of projects, what is without doubt today the richest private mansion of all those known in the ancient Roman city partially emerged into the daylight. Located near two other patrician houses (that of an insula at San Domingos and the one with the Daedalus and Pasiphae mosaic) it is now a museum known as Domus Oceani or the Mosaics House. The large house was located on the property sites of numbers 20-22 Doutor Castro street, in the street itself and neighbouring sites. The insula, which was partly occupied by the house, had a surface area of 14,000 square metres, almost as large as the town forum, and faced on to the cardo máximus and the decumanus máximus. An arcaded courtyard, a great drawing room (oecus) with an attaching ante-room and a possible bathing area with hypocaust make up the known parts of the great mansion, but it is the magnificent mosaics and the equally spectacular wall murals which make the house a true urban palace and show that the ancient Batitales was not unique and, certainly, was not part of any temple to Diana. The final phase of the mansion dates from the end of the 3rd, or beginning of the 4th, century until midway through the 5th century. The possibility has been suggested that it may have been the residence of the legate of the short-lived province Hispania Superior discovered by the recently deceased Heidelberg professor, Géza Alföldy. If so, Lugo would have been the provincial capital during the few years that this third century territory existed, something which even the most optimistic of the elder writers on the history of Lugo could never have suspected12.
The excavations at the Miño baths, which were concluded in 1998 and 1999, also brought surprises. The discovery of an apse-shaped room and other rooms was accompanied by an important epigraphical discovery: 14 altars were found, most of which were dedicated to various nymphs and had been thrown into a swimming pool and, apparently, deliberately broken. The altars were found along with various items from the 4th century AD. They are housed in the hotel-spa. Such discoveries are not made every day.
The year 2000 has already become an important and glorious milestone for the city, for the reason that a UNESCO committee, meeting in Australia, declared the wall which girds the city to be a World Heritage Site, with all that this means in terms of its maintenance, conservation, stimulus for tourism etc. for a little known city. As part of the campaign to support this declaration, the third substantial exhibition of archaeological artefacts from Lugo was held in the Porta Miñá exhibition hall13.
An aedicule dedicated to the Luci and attributed to the 2nd-3rd centuries, with a square base about 3.5 metres wide, and two altars, was discovered in rúa de Montevideo in the year 2000 at the location which in Roman times occupied the exit from Lucus to Brigantium (A Coruña) by Roman via XX. As we shall see, this was not the only new archaeological discovery made over the past few years connected to the ancient religions which were practised in the city.
In 2001 a somewhat unusual, and of course unexpected, revelation caused surprise among Lugo aficionados of the past: the surface stonework of the walls, which is dark grey due to the colour of the slate from which it is made, in Antiquity would have gleamed white like an Andalusian house because it was whitewashed. We can try to imagine how striking the whitish appearance of the walls would be on a sunny day (the few that we get in this area) to someone approaching along one of the several paths that led in through the city gates.
The appearance, in 2001-2002, of two ditches during excavations being carried out in the area around Montevideo street may help to shed light on the origins of the city as possibly being a military encampment during the Cantabrian Wars. We would then be looking at origins similar to those of Astorga. This supposed encampment has nothing to do with Schulten’s older hypothesis which suggested that the present day urban centre of Lugo was originally a Roman battlefield structure. However the possible military origin of Lucus would have to be related to two other facts provided by archaeology: it seems that the caetra coins may have been produced by a mint set up here in the course of those wars, and two inscriptions have appeared in Lugo which mention that the Sixth Legion stayed here.
In the year 2000 excavations began under the villa of Os Montenegro facing the main façade of the Cathedral. It is on this site that the premises of the Vice-Chancellor of the University will be built. Two years later in this location what was then a Mithraeum was discovered, that is, a temple dedicated to the god of Persian origin, Mithras, whose cult was spread by the Roman empire in the years preceding the final triumph of Christianity and with which it was in conflict. This is the second new development relating to the history of religions provided by the archaeologists of Lugo. Out of the Mithraeum comes a magnificent altar almost one metre high, dedicated to Mithras by a centurion of the Seventh Legion, and which also informs us about the existence in the city of a statio lucensis, a tribute office run by military personnel. The altar is, of course, the latest epigraphic find of significance in Lugo. The unexpected presence of a Mithraeum in the corner of this peninsular northern region once again calls into question the older theories which argue that there was little or no Romanization in these northerly territories14.
In 2005, to mark the commemoration of the fifth anniversary of the declaration of the walls as a World Heritage Site, another large conference took place in Lugo, this one being dedicated to the study of Roman walls in the west of the empire. This event took place between the 26th and 29th of November in that year15.
The years 2006 and 2007 provided us with three new archaeological developments. The first was the excavation and subsequent renovation of the wall’s guard chamber located in the Porta Miñá. The second - which contributed further to the history of the religions - was the excavation of what was possibly a rectangular temple with an apse-shaped chevet, in the garden of the Arts Circle. It may have been dedicated to Laho Paraliomego. The third was the discovery of a fort, the existence of which had not been suspected, in the area of A Piringalla, which is to say in the vicinity of the ancient Roman city.
And with the year 2011 we come to the end of our tour. On the occasion of the tenth anniversary of the declaration of the walls as a global asset, the City Council published the latest work of synthesis on the Roman history of the city16.
That same year the Provincial Museum obtained a map of the Campo Castelo from 1757, which is of great importance for our understanding of the wall at Lugo. The map, which is the work of the architect Agustín Baamonde, was discovered amongst the archive papers of the Tor manor house and was found during the creation of an inventory of the manor’s library. On this map one can see several turrets of the wall in the A Mosqueira sector, each one clearly crowned with three windows rounded in arches. This therefore confirms the existence of the type of original crowning of the wall turrets, which was already known about because of a nineteenth century engraving but which has been difficult to confirm in terms of actual physical evidence. And also in 2011 the latest work about the city’s Roman archaeology appears, bringing to a conclusion our review of the same17.
We said at the beginning of this article that the existing repertoire of epigraphical evidence from Lucus would be used as a method of seeing, with numbers, how knowledge about the original history of the population has been increasing with the passage of time. Let us look at this, then, in conclusion:
-Volume II of the major work edited by Hübner, the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, dates from 1869 and includes 27 inscriptions emanating from the city of Lugo.
-If we jump forward almost one hundred years we find 51 inscriptions reported as having been found in the city of Lugo up until 195418.
-A few years later, in 1979, we get the third inventory of inscriptions attributed to the province of Lugo19. Here we find 54 inscriptions from Lucus.
-The latest enumeration of inscriptions from Lugo is published in 2009. It gathers together 94 inscriptions found in the city20. Therefore, between the inscriptions reviewed by Hübner and those collected in the latest published work, there is a significant increase which sets out numerically how the research into the Roman city has progressed.
And we do not want to conclude this discussion without highlighting the appearance, in February 1988, of what we consider to be the “jewel in the crown” of Lugo epigraphy. We are referring to the city’s foundation stone which was discovered between the Praza Maior and the rúa dos Cregos. It is made of granite and is more than two metres high. It is dedicated to the emperor Augustus by his legate Paulo Fabio Máximo, the founder of our city back in the years 15 to 13 BC. It now presides over the archaeological collection in Porta Miñá, but in our view a cast, a replica or something similar should be placed in the most prominent and central part of the city accompanied by a short note of explanation: the birth certificate in stone of Lucus Augusti, which - we believe - very few cities with origins similar to ours can exhibit.
- 1 Armesto, F. J. - Arnau, A., Apuntes concernientes al vestigio romano descubierto en la calle de Batitales de la ciudad de Lugo, Imprenta de Pujol y Hermano, Lugo, 1843.
- 2 See for this subject, Abel Vilela, A., Origen de las edificaciones adosadas a la muralla romana de Lugo, La Voz de la Verdad, Lugo, 1972. The same author has a wider and more recent study: A muralla romana de Lugo na documentación dos séculos XVI ao XX, Diputación Provincial de Lugo, Lugo, 2011.
- 3 Richmond, I. A., “Five towns-walls in Hispania Citerior”, Journal of Roman Studies, XXI, 1931, pp. 87 et sqq. It is the first rigorous study on our fortification made by the person who had studied the Aurelian Wall in Rome. This author defined what he named legionary style with the walls in Lugo, Astorga and León.
- 4 Vázquez Seijas, M., Fortalezas de Lugo y su provincia (notas arqueológicas, históricas y genealógicas), Diputación Provincial de Lugo, Lugo, 1955, vol. I.
- 5 Arias Vilas, F., “Las murallas romanas de Lugo”, Studia Archaeologica 14, Universidad de Santiago, Santiago, 1972. It is the author’s dissertation supervised by Alberto Balil, a specialist, among other things, in the Late Empire walls of Barcelona. Arias Vilas dates the walls of Lugo between the years 260 and 310. As a more recent paper on these places we can mention the one by Fernández Ochoa, C. - Morillo Cerdán, A. published in 1991-92 in the journal Cuadernos de Prehistoria y Arqueología de la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid.
- 6 Acuña Castroviejo, F., “Mosaicos romanos de Hispania Citerior, II, Conventus Lucensis”, Studia Archaeologica, 24, Santiago de Compostela, 1973. Here the Batitales mosaic is dated in the 3rd century (pp. 19 et sqq.).
- 7 Actas del Coloquio Internacional sobre el Bimilenario de Lugo, Patronato del Bimilenario de Lugo, Lugo, 1977. For the many events held in order to commemorate the 2.000 years of Lugo, see: Abel Vilela, A., El Bimilenario, Lugo, 1981.
- 8 Álvarez Asorey, R.- Carreño Gascón, M. C.- González Fernández, E., “Aqua Urbi. Historia do abastecemento de auga á cidade de Lugo (época romana-Século XX)”, Traballos de Arqueoloxía, nº 1, Concello de Lugo, Lugo, 2003.
- 9 The journal is made by the Archaeological Group Larouco, which excavates in the city and is led by Antonio Colmenero. Edited by Edicións do Castro, its two first issues were subtitled “Revista da Historia primitiva, tradicións orais e patrimonio cultural de Galicia”. From the third issue onwards it changes this subtitle for “Revista anual da Antiguedade Galaica”.
- 10 On the occasion of the exhibition, the first global publication on the Roman archaeology of Lugo comes out: Rodríguez Colmenero, A. et alii, “Urbs Romana. As orixes da cidade de Lugo”, Traballos de Arqueoloxía, nº 0, Concello de Lugo, Lugo, 1995.
- In 1999 the Congress book was published in two thick volumes: Rodríguez Colmenero, A. (coord.), Los orígenes de la ciudad en el noroeste hispánico. Actas del Congreso Internacional. Lugo, 15-18 de mayo, 1996, Diputación Provincial de Lugo.
- 11 Rodríguez Colmenero, A. (coord.), Lucus Augusti. El amanecer de una ciudad, Fundación Pedro Barrié de la Maza, A Coruña, 1996. The second and, so far, latest volume of the series was published in 2001: Alcorta Irastorza, E., Lucus Augusti II. Cerámica común romana de cocina y mesa hallada en las excavaciones de la ciudad, Fundación Pedro Barrié de la Maza, Santiago, 2001.
- 12 González Fernández, E., “Domus Oceani. Aproximación á arquitectura doméstica de Lucus Augusti”, Traballos de Arqueoloxía, nº 2, Concello de Lugo, Lugo, 2005. By the same author: Lugo arqueolóxico. Casa dos Mosaicos Batitales, Xunta de Galicia, A Coruña, 2005.
- 13 The city council edited the exhibition catalogue with the same title, Imago Antiqua. Lugo romano, Lugo, 2005. The council also celebrated the inclusion of the wall in the World Heritage list with another book: AA.VV., A muralla de Lugo. Patrimonio da Humanidade, Lugo, 2004.
- 14 Rodríguez Cao, C. (coord), A domus do mitreo, Universidade de Santiago, A Coruña, 2011.
- 15 The Congress book was published by the Provincial Council of Lugo in 2007: Murallas de ciudades romanas en el occidente del imperio. Lucus Augusti como paradigma.
- 16 Rodríguez Colmenero, A., Lucus Augusti. A cidade romano-xermánica da Fisterra Ibérica. Xénese e evolución histórica (14 a. C.-711 d. C.), Lugo, 2011.
- 17 Carreras Monfort, C.- Morais, R.- González Fernández, E., “Ánforas romanas de Lugo”, Traballos de Arqueoloxía, 3, Servicio Municipal de Arqueoloxía do Concello de Lugo, Lugo, 2011.
- 18 Vázquez Saco, F. - Vázquez Seijas, M., Inscripciones romanas de Galicia. II. Provincia de Lugo, Instituto Padre Sarmiento de Estudios Gallegos, Santiago, 1954.
- 19 Arias Vilas, F.- Le Roux, P.- Tranoy, A, Inscriptions romaines de la Province de Lugo, Centre Pierre Paris, Paris, 1979, pp. 29 et sqq.